The Rotating Hook Chain Stitch

This is a very clever device invented by James Gibbs in 1857. A specially shaped hook rotates on an axle, twisting each stitch before it is passes through the next loop. It is difficult to visualize because the hook works in three dimensions.
As the hook rotates it catches a loop of thread introduced by the needle (not shown). Rotation continues but the thread behind the hook cannot slide back because it is prevented by the axle (which does not project forward). The part of the loop behind the hook then passes in front of the toe and behind the heel. The point of the toe is set back.
The part of the loop which was in front now slips back around the hook. This has the effect of twisting the loop making it much harder to run or come undone. The hook then passes through this loop and catches the next one. Extremely clever.
The complete stitch is shown opposite. I have two Willcox and Gibbs, an original Express and several toy machines, which employ this system.